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Cora McCarthy
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puma fenty
« on: January 21, 2020, 03:20:48 am »

The estimated demographic history puma fenty supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.The puma ( Puma concolor Linnaeus, 1771) is a large felid that ranges throughout the Americas, exhibiting the broadest latitudinal distribution of any terrestrial mammal ( Nowak, 1999 ). Pumas have remarkable dispersal capabilities ( Maehr et al. , 2002 ; Beier et al. , 2003 ) and successfully occupy a diverse array of habitats, illustrating their potential to adapt to the breadth of environmental conditions occurring across the continent, from tropical forests and marshes to dry scrubland and cold Andean or Patagonian biomes ( Redford and Eisenberg, 1992 ; Nowak, 1999 ).

Pumas are solitary and territorial, with large home ranges. Females tend to occupy smaller areas and disperse shorter distances, thus being more philopatric than males ( Logan and Sweanor, 2001 ; Maehr et al. , puma women shoes 2002 ). Overall, the species' ecological flexibility and dispersal capabilities have the potential to induce broad genetic connectivity across large geographic areas, unless historical barriers have limited gene flow among populations.Fossil evidence indicates that pumas were already present in North America 0.4 million years ago (MYA) ( Kurtén and Anderson, 1980 ).

That puma shoes in canada study indicated that most of the 32 classical puma subspecies did not correspond to definable genetic units and reduced the number of recognized subspecies to six. Four of these subspecies were distributed in South America, indicating that most of the species' historical subdivision occurred in that subcontinent. In addition, the genetic diversity within South America was found to be larger than in Central and North America, suggesting that pumas from the latter subcontinent actually derive from a recent re-colonization event, following extinction in North America in the Late Pleistocene (ca. 10,000 12,000 years ago).

Finally, we conducted a set of analyses to investigate the demographic history of pumas. puma shoes women We performed neutrality tests (Tajima's D, Fu & Li' D* and F*, Fu's Fs) with DnaSP, as well as a mismatch distribution analysis ( Rogers and Harpending, 1992 ; Schneider and Excoffier, 1999 ) with Arlequin. In addition, we used the program Beast 1.6.1 ( Drummond and Rambaut, 2007 ) to perform estimates of coalescence times and past demography. We defined the best model of nucleotide substitution for our data set, which was the HKY ( Hasegawa et al. , 1985 ) G model, using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, Akaike, 1974 ) implemented in jModelTest 0.1 ( Posada, 2008 ).

Our first set of Beast runs was aimed at estimating the molecular clock rate for our segment in puma lineages. We assumed a Yule Process for the tree prior and incorporated an uncorrelated lognormal relaxed molecular clock. In order to better fit the expectations of the Yule process we only included five divergent puma haplotypes, along with the two jaguarundi sequences generated here. To calibrate the molecular clock we assumed that pumas and jaguarundis diverged between 3.16 and 6.01 MYA (95% HPD of the estimate reported by Johnson et al. (2006) using a nuclear supermatrix). We applied a uniform prior using these ages as conservative minimum and maximum boundaries, respectively.

The final run was based on 10 8 MCMC generations, puma shoes for basketball with samples taken every 10 4 steps, and the first 10 4 steps removed as burn-in.The second set of Beast analyses aimed to infer the time of the most recent common ancestor ( t MRCA ) of different groups of samples, as well as to reconstruct the demographic history of pumas by estimating past fluctuations in population size via the Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) approach ( Drummond et al. , 2005 ). We assumed a Bayesian skyline tree prior and a strict molecular clock, whose evolutionary rate was based on the estimate derived from the first round of analyses.
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